Recency, Frequency Value scoring

We are not all the same and neither are our customers! So it should come as no great surprise that customer segmentation is key to ensuring you market successfully to your customers; right message at the right time.

At the heart of direct marketing is data and using this valuable resource to ensure you send appropriate propositions to the right customers segment.

Many organisations think that they need to buy in external lifestyle or business demographics in order to better understand their customers. Whilst there may be benefits from these data resources, the value of in-house data should not be overlooked.

The most common areas around which to segment customers are:

  • Geography: Region, City or Postcode
  • Product: Category or even specific product
  • Response: (which campaigns have they responded to)
  • Source: (how their details were acquired)
  • Gender

These do not provide much insight into what makes a customer different when compared with any other customer in for instance a similar geography. But when combined with a measure of customer performance they become more revealing.

The classic method for measuring customer performance is to score each customer based on:

  • How recent was the last order placed by this customer – Recency 
  • How many times has a customer ordered on average within a predetermined period – Frequency 
  • How much they spend or what margin they contribute when they order –Value 

How to score customers

For each customer run enquiries on your database to identify:

  • Date of first and last order
  • Number of orders
  • Spend value (this can be gross margin, order value, whatever appropriate measure of value of customer expenditure)

From these calculate:

  • RECENCY: Time since last order is current date minus date of last order (Days) 
  • FREQUENCY: Duration of custom: current date minus date of first order (Days) divided by Number of orders 
  •  VALUE: In some cases you may wish to calculate a total value (i.e. sum the value measures) in others an average is adequate, calculated by dividing the total value measure by the number of orders 

These give you absolute values for each customer. The next stage is to categorise these into segments by determining relevant groups of values and then apply a corresponding score to each customer.

Taking each element in turn, the objective is to achieve categories that have broadly speaking similar numbers of customers in each.

The number of categories will vary depending on your business. For example a mail order clothing company:

RECENCY:

  • 1 to 30 days – score 5
  • 31 to 60 days – score 4
  • 61 to 90 days – score 3
  • 91 to 180 days – score 2
  • 181 to 365 days – score 1
  • Greater than 365 days – score 0

FREQUENCY:

  • At least once per month – score 5
  • At least once in three months – score 4
  • At least once in six months – score 3
  • At least once in greater than six months – score 1
  • Once time only purchase – score 0

VALUE: Clearly this depends on the business in question. If Gross margin is not readily identifiable, then the sales value could be used, but consideration should be given to the distribution of margin across the products your organisation sells.

RFV0

Assuming similar ranges of scores are applied for Value then your best customers would be those with scores of 555 (highest worth) down to 000 (lowest worth).

Remember this is not a discrete value of say five hundred and fifty five (highest worth), but an identifier composed of 5 elements: 5-5-5.

This therefore provides an identifier for each customer which can be used as selection criteria for campaigns e.g. You want to communicate with all reasonably recent high spenders who are not the most frequent customers with the objective of increasing the number of purchases they make in a period; so you might select customers with an RFV quotient of 414, 425, 414 and 525.

An on-going scoring process enables you to track purchasing and the effect of campaigns on customer behaviours. So in our example, how many has our campaign converted into 525s and 555s?
RFV1

This comparison will also provide direction for future campaigns to address churn, unprofitable customers and up-selling.

Other attributes can be score in a similar way: how long the customer has been a customer (longevity), number of complaints, cancellations or returns, referrals to friends and relations, abandoned baskets, quotations not taken up, etc., all adding to the behavioural profile of the customers.

Marketing systems can accommodate automated workflows for communications, reporting or alerts when customers significantly change score, to drive relationship marketing strategies.

For more guidance on RFV modelling or help with building your own models contact Michael Collins at mc@dmcounsel.co.uk.

©Michael Collins 2007-2018

 

 

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Knowing customers wherever they touch your business

We have seen businesses who have been later entrants into internet and even mobile shopping losing ground as they lose customers who view such retailers as out-of-touch with their requirements. HMV was a great example where it seems their lack of investment in online in preference for diversification left a great brand anachronistic and irrelevant for its customer base and struggling for market share.
Today’s consumer wants a relationship with a brand that he or she values, trusts and wants to participate with through any channel. In return they want to be recognised as the same customer whether they engage on-line, in-store or on a mobile device.
Contact through any of these are valuable touchpoints where the relationship can be tested and data acquired, validated or augmented.
We had one client in fashion retail who were looking to stop publishing their printed catalogue since the number of orders being placed by phone or order form was declining. Analysis of how many of their best customers wished to manage the relationship across all channels was fascinating; typically they would wait eagerly for the latest catalogue and then having selected the items that attracted them they would go on-line to browse these products in more detail. Having made the decision, they would then visit their local high street branch and try the product and buy in-store. Taking away the catalogue would have had severe implications on their store sales.
The key is to recognise the customer however they present themselves to the business but ideally without the need for a loyalty card to encumber the experience as it replaces the enjoyment of shopping with a mundane device. In the work I did in the UK theme park sector in the 1990s and 2000s we shunned a ‘back-to-earth’ effect of data capture, relying alternatively on an in-context method of acquiring data which became part of the fun day out.
Once this can be achieved in retail (and I have some ideas of how to do it) the relationship can be integrated and rather than just today’s special offer being emailed or sent by SMS message, the individual can enjoy a much more tailored experience.
If any retailers would like to discuss this methodology do get in touch at mc@dmcounsel.co.uk.

Scoring your customers

Companies must continue communicating with their customers through a consistent strategy that is driven by customer insight. Rating current customers is not solely based on how much they spend but has as its basis the classic RFM (or RFV in the UK) model that creates a score based on recency, frequency and monetary value. My recommenation is not to stop there but to add more elements such as Returns, Complaints, number of enquiries, length of time they have been a customer and create a contact plan that reacts to the dynamics of these scores.

Often we will identify cohorts of customers that represent bad business. The solution can either be to review the business process for how you do business with them, e.g. relegating them to an ‘exclusive’ on-line relationship where the cost of managing them is reduced rather than taking up the time of a salesman or telephone agent; alternatively the bullet might have to be bitten and you resign the account.

However, building segmentations or communities of valuable, profitable customers by profile and comparing their behaviour will also drive the communication; but don’t just use it to determine when to make contact. Customer insight should also drive the ‘next best proposition’ for each customer so that the sales person can be proactive in establishing opportunity. What you know about your customers can also be used to drive new customer acquisition by comparing prospects’ profiles with your customers and determining the best proposition.

Customers rate companies with whom they deal by the quality of the communications and this means relevance, personalisation and timeliness.

Can you risk leaving travel customers to make up their own minds?

A recent survey by Directline Holidays concludes that  Word of Mouth is most trusted recommendation when it comes to booking the right trip.

Travel companies have the ability to build and nurture such tactics from within their own customer data. Considering the customer’s overall relationship with the company will assist in creating a customer journey that delivers advocates who will either perform actively or passively for the brand.

Active advocacy is where the satisfied customer will recommend the firm to their relations, friends and wider acquaintances; sometimes a reward sweetens the process. Passive advocacy is where using what you know about your best customers enables you to ‘clone’ new customers who are likely to appreciate similar destinations and levels of service and so behave in a similar manner.

All of this can achieved by collecting and maintaining the right data about customers, engaging them in a relationship and progressing them up the “loyalty staircase” to advocacy.

The survey also stated that “almost a quarter of those surveyed said they were not influenced by anything” (source: e-tid 20/8/12). Can you risk your customers being left to their own devices? Make sure they are influenced by their peers, by relevant propositions and a customer relationship that delivers real benefits.

When is a prospect not a prospect? When they are purely a suspect (or at least have a pulse)!

Just think how leads come into your business.

Unlike traditional marketing where specific, targeted campaigns generate a qualified response, today a company’s broad presence on the web can mean that response is uncontrolled and is not necessarily representative of a valid lead for your sales operation. Potential customers today go online to research products and services, review recommendations and compare prices. This means an initial enquiry may not generate a sale for a considerable time and the enquirer can only be viewed as a ‘suspect’ – not even a prospect. 

So, once a ‘suspect’ is acquired, a relationship must be created to establish qualification and evaluate and build on the potential until such time as the lead is ready to be passed to sales. But what constitutes a ‘sales-ready’ lead? This is a strategic decision to be agreed upon between sales and marketing. Remember, it may vary by type of prospect, by product or market.

This ‘pre-sales’ process is known as Lead Nurturing and involves scheduled time or event driven communications aimed at establishing the prospect’s needs and delivering soft sell support, with appropriate messaging, landing pages, tracking and measurement.

These communications can take the form of blogs, newsletters, thought-leading statements and tailored, personalised messages, normally delivered via e-mail marketing techniques or social media.

Insight into the behaviour demonstrated by different profiles of suspects, prospects and customers will enable a company to build a lead nurturing strategy that ensures as many as enquire turn into customers or repeat purchasers as possible. The strategy also controls the level of resource used to convert the sale, meaning improved ROI.